Scoliosis is a stable lateral curvature of the spine on the right or left side in relation to it in the front plane.
Its symptoms can be easily seen by another person, but it is difficult to diagnose in oneself. As the disease progresses, there is a secondary deformity of the chest and pelvis, followed by injury to the function of the heart, lungs and pelvic organs. The disease has been known since ancient times. The expression means - a crooked, curved spine of pillars, suggested by Galen in II c. n. e.
Grade 1 and 2 scoliosis is well camouflaged, so adults do not even suspect the presence of this disease. The danger of scoliosis is the tightening of nerve fibers, violation of their communication, movement or compression of certain internal organs, deterioration of respiratory functions. Severe forms of the disease can lead to serious disorders of internal organs and the formation of disability.
If you do not care about the treatment of scoliosis in adults, then it starts to progress and get worse. So, scoliosis of one degree can go smoothly on the 2nd and even 3-4 degrees, and then remain for the rest of life. In children with orthopedic diseases, up to 30% suffer from this disease.
Causes of scoliosis
What is that? Scoliosis of the spine progresses especially quickly during the development of the child, because it extends in growth, that is, it is the age interval of 6-17 years. Special attention should be paid to proper posture during school hours, when the child sits at the table for a long time. Very often, children lean on one side, so it is more comfortable to sit, which causes a lateral curvature of the spine, that is - scoliosis.
The congenital type of the disease occurs on the background of various anomalies in the development of the skeleton or spinal cord. However, most are acquired diseases that can be caused by the following factors:
- inactive lifestyle, work in the seat, problems with posture;
- difference in leg length due to joint disease;
- weakness of cartilaginous tissue, tendons.
The first place in the prevalence with a large margin is idiopathic scoliosis - that is, a disease with an unidentified cause. That is about 80% of the total number of cases. Depressed by the situation and the fact that girls are exposed to the problem 4-7 times more often.
The classification of scoliosis was developed by Chaklin and includes 4 degrees.
- Grade 1 scoliosis - is characterized by pelvic asymmetry, some abdomen, which is almost invisible to the patient. The shoulders are at different levels, careful examination reveals a mismatch of the waist. At this stage, the spine is curved no more than 10 degrees.
- 2 degrees of scoliosis - asymmetrical contours of the neck and waist. This defect becomes visible in any position of the body. The angle of curvature is from 10 to 20 degrees.
- 3rd degree scoliosis - angle from 26 to 50 degrees. The disease of the third degree is manifested by persistent pain in the back, pronounced deformation (change in the shape) of the back, and a proportion appears in the area of the ribs (ribbed hump).
- 4 degrees - the angle of curvature exceeds 50 degrees. A cosmetic defect and all previous signs are expressed. Low tolerance even for small physical effort.
Examination of a patient suffering from scoliosis, in honey conditions. The institution shall include a detailed examination in a standing, sitting and lying position to identify the above characteristics.
Symptoms of scoliosis
Scoliosis in the early stages, the symptoms are almost absent - an adult or a child is not bothered by any pain and can be considered absolutely healthy. As you progress, the person begins to increase fatigue and the amount of movement in the back decreases.
Depending on the stage of the disease, the symptoms are expressed to a greater or lesser extent. Some parents may notice such abnormal backgrounds as their growing child:
- One shoulder stands above the other.
- When the child is standing, the arms are joined on the side, the distance between the arm and the waist is different on both sides.
- The blades are asymmetrical - on the concave side of the scapula is closer to the spine, its angle shakes.
- When bent over, the curvature of the spine is noticeable.
The symptoms of scoliosis can vary depending on the type of disease:
- Cervico-thoracic: curvature at the level of 4-5 vertebrae, followed by asymmetry of the shoulders.
- The thorax is manifested by a curvature at the level of the seventh to ninth vertebrae. There are injuries of respiratory functions, the chest is deformed.
- The lumbar corresponds to the curvature of the first seconds of the lumbar vertebra. External deformities are insignificant, but this disease distinguishes the early development of painful sensations.
- In the lumbosacral, the curvature is at the level of the 10th to the 12th vertebra. There are injuries to the respiratory and blood pressure.
- Combined: curvature at the level of 8-9 thoracic and first seconds of lumbar vertebrae
Scoliosis, diagnosed on time, will never cause complications such as metabolic disorders or difficult to compensate for headaches.
Treatment of scoliosis
In the treatment of scoliosis, it has its own characteristics, which depend on the age of the patient, the degree of curvature of the spine and the type of disease. It includes conservative methods (massage, medical gymnastics, etc.) and surgical treatment (surgery).
The general rule for treating scoliosis is to monitor the condition if the curve is less than 20 degrees. With curves greater than 25 degrees or those advancing 10 degrees but under control, treatment may be required. It should be borne in mind that the final formation of the spine is completed by the age of 20, and after this time, the correction of the cross is almost impossible.
Drugs (chondroprotectors, vitamins, restorative drugs) play only an auxiliary role in the treatment of scoliosis. At an angle of curvature of up to 15 degrees, in the absence of rotation, specialized gymnastics is shown. At the same time, it is recommended to conduct the first sessions under the guidance of a specialist. Therapeutic gymnastics is extremely important for the development and strengthening of the torso muscles, as well as the formation of the correct position.
When performing a complex of therapeutic gymnastics, sports equipment can be used: gymnastic benches and walls, inclined planes, ticks, rollers, strips, cuffs, frames, sticks, weights, etc.
Second-degree scoliosis is not treated as quickly as the first, sometimes it takes a year to eliminate this disease. As a treatment, the doctor puts in addition to therapeutic gymnastics and massage, respiratory gymnastics, wears a corset, manual therapy. In most cases, scoliosis does not require surgery. However, severe pain or progressive deformity is an indication for surgery.
Parents are asked to control that the child always has a straight back, proper posture, especially when the child does a lesson or reads. Do not forget about proper nutrition, active lifestyle, the presence of constant physical activity.
Prophylaxis of scoliosis in adults is not much different from prevention in children.
Does the military take scoliosis?
The army takes only those who have the first degree of scoliosis. At the second and third degree confirmed by the radiograph, the editor is sent to the reserve, assigning him a category B, that is, he is limited to going.
Grade 1 scoliosis
Scoliosis is a disease of the spine, in which one or more curves (deviations) are formed in relation to the vertical position. The disease can manifest regardless of age, but most diagnoses come from preschool and school-age children.
Types and degrees of scoliosis
From the degree of curvature of the spine (angle of deviation from the vertical axis), scoliosis is divided into four phases:
- 1 degree - the initial phase, expressed by simple forms of curvature with an angle of deviation of less than 10 degrees.
- 2 degrees - the degree to which the angle of deviation is 11-25 degrees.
- 3 degrees - as well as the second phase of medium severity, in which the angle of deviation of the spine is 26-50 degrees.
- 4 degrees - heavy shape, with bending of the spine from the vertical axis over 50 degrees.
The number and direction of curves are used to classify curvature in scoliosis.
The following types of scoliosis are determined, which depend on the number of curves: with one curve in Figure C, with two - in Figure C, with three in Figure Z. The direction of curvature of the spine is directed to the right or to the left. The location of the deformity occurs in parts of the neck, sternum or ankle.
To summarize, we can say that first degree scoliosis occurred:
Diagnosis can be made in two ways. In the first case, the orthopedic doctor can discover the planned medical examination. Or radiography in a standing position. But radiography in the initial phase is rarely determined by a doctor and is considered unnecessary.
Symptoms and signs of onset
With grade 1 scoliosis, there are inherent symptoms. An asymmetrical setting of the shoulder or pelvis is pronounced. At the same time, the position is disturbed, the slope is noticeable and the lordosis increases. Do not mix with other diseases asymmetric or spotty posture. Occurrence of the same symptoms, but caused by muscle imbalance. Placing the person in a horizontal position, external defects disappear.
Causes of scoliosis
The main cause of the first degree of scoliosis is the weakness of the muscular frame and uneven growth of the spine. They make up about 40% of the causes of the disease.
Congenital anomalies that accelerate curvature account for up to 25% of causes. This includes defects of the vertebrae, pelvis, ribs, poor muscle structure and connective tissue from the pathology of the spine in cerebral palsy.
According to the obtained reasons for the appearance of first-degree scoliosis with subsequent progression, it is possible to say:
- sitting at a table chooses the wrong position (with hand covered head, leg bent, strongly bent, and so on).
- for a long time behind a computer or TV (there are loads on the spine from different sides of different intensity).
- sedentary lifestyle.
- In contrast, the load increases when playing sports in such types, where the muscles do not develop unevenly.
- unstable and uncomfortable shoes.
- creating great weight on one shoulder or arm.
- improperly matched furniture for age (table, chair).
In addition to the causes, there are diseases that cause scoliosis. This hormonal surge or imbalance, decreased calcium intake, vertebral tuberculosis, osteomyelitis.
Grade 1 scoliosis in children
The first stage is the initial phase, in which the spine is slightly curved. Both kindergarten and elementary school children have scoliosis caused by an immature and weak muscular frame, improperly fitted into a table or table. After all, for a large number of children, one teacher cannot be seen. But don't overdo it. Prevention and treatment of children leads to a positive result.
Grade 1 progression of scoliosis in children can lead to a lack of attention and neglect of the child's health from the parents. To detect the signs of the disease, it is enough to visit the doctor in the clinic 2-3 times a year. It will monitor the dynamics of development and adjust the method of treatment.
It is not superfluous for parents to remind that the child must be reminded of the wrong attitude when playing, he is engaged. Buy a table and chair for age-appropriate classes. To sleep in bed, place a flat hard mattress and a low pillow.
First-degree scoliosis in adolescents
The most common diagnosis after preventive examinations of school children is scoliosis. This is due not only to the fact that the teenager has been sitting in class for a long time, but also to the fact that when he returns home, he is sitting at the computer. Social networks, virtual games for a long time. Not a desire to get into sports. Here are the root causes.
Recreational sports have a preventive effect on the spine of teenagers. It is recommended to practice martial arts and dances from the east, swimming or just fitness.
Grade 1 scoliosis in adults
Diagnosed with grade 1 scoliosis in adults is considered normal. In most cases, adults are diagnosed with a movement of the vertebrae from the vertical axis by several degrees. How treatment is not needed. The main prevention is to prevent the transmission of the disease to the 2nd degree, where headaches and disorders of the vascular and cardiac systems can occur.
Treatment of spinal scoliosis 1 degree
For children and adolescents, treatment is limited to preventive actions. That is enough for effective therapy. In the initial phase of scoliosis, by applying general methods of strengthening, the position is straightened, the back muscles are strengthened.
Other methods of treatment are used for adults: conservative, manual and medical. In the first two cases, physiotherapy, wearing a corset, massages, physiotherapy exercises and manual therapy are used.
With the medical method of treatment drugs used, strengthening and regeneration of cartilage tissue between the vertebrae (chondroprotectors) increase blood flow to provide nutrients and minerals to muscle tissue.
Measures prescribed for the treatment of 1st grade scoliosis:
- curative physical culture
- training on simulators
- balanced diet.
Therapeutic physical culture
Physiotherapy exercise classes are appointed by doctors, while it is chosen through exercises for a specific person. The location and shape of the curve are taken into account. In the initial phase, simple basic exercises.
Training and initial training take place in the polyclinic under the supervision of an instructor or doctor. Then you can study at home. The main sense of proportion. Excessive stress can cause relapse.
The exercises recommended for physical education are varied. That includes:
- exercises, warming up the muscles of the back, chest, helping to lighten the spine.
- stretching (stretching) the spine.
- exercises to strengthen the press (front abdominal wall), back muscles.
Classes are held in well-ventilated rooms. The presence of a mirror is welcome. Clothes with shoes should not interfere with movement and be comfortable made of natural materials.
Massage with scoliosis
The main direction in the treatment of scoliosis of 1 degree is given by massage. Recommended for all ages. The main purpose is to massage: remove high muscle tone, restore and improve blood flow and improve the regeneration of normalization, creating a roller muscle with a concave side curve.
During the massage, a longitudinal, deep broom, rubbing, friction with weight, vibrations are used. During the massage, for 8-10 sessions, it is recommended to change the procedures in order to prevent recurrence.
The following exercises are recommended for the treatment, prevention and strengthening of the muscular corset.
Lie on your back:
- pull the heels and head in opposite directions for 10 seconds, repeat 4 times.
- exercise "scissors", performed 10 times with the rest of 2-3 minutes.
Lying on stomach:
- arms and feet are raised to the top as when breasts are swimming, 2-3 sets of 10 times.
- "Scissors" on the stomach, 10 times with small breaks.
- circular rotation of the arms, while the arms are bent at the elbows, fingers pressed to the shoulders, 10-15 rotations in each direction in two approaches.
Treatment of scoliosis at home
At home, scoliosis is treated according to the recommendations of an orthopedic doctor. The basis is performing a specially selected exercise, which wears a corset. Regular visits to the gym are recommended. It is used for exercise and imitates walking on skis.
Equipped with a horizontal bar at the entrance is the best folk simulator. Hovering for one minute a day for 1-2 months helps to straighten the spine.
It is recommended daily physical activity in the form of active walking or walking, from half an hour to two, bathing with coniferous concentrate, putting on salt compresses.
Degrees of scoliosis
The pathological curvature of the spine in most cases develops gradually and it seems to be a feeling when the degree of scoliosis has already passed the initial phase. One of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system is initially asymptomatic. Minimal deformity of the spinal column on the right or left side can be seen by the surgeon on routine examination.
This problem is primarily related to children. High risk of occurrence and progression of scoliosis in the period of intensive body growth. The development of pathology can be caused by a long stay in the headquarters, which cannot be avoided during the school years.
How much can the disease be neglected and how to avoid aggravating the situation if scoliosis is already present? Timely treatment will avoid further complications. That is why it is so important to conduct preventive examinations of children.
There are congenital and acquired scoliosis. In the first case, the cause of future problems is set during the intrauterine period.
Due to the influence of certain factors, the skeleton is formed incorrectly. Acquired scoliosis is the result of the influence of the external environment or the internal predisposition of the body. Injuries to the back, too weak dorsal muscles, prolonged stay of the body in an uncomfortable position - all this negatively affects the musculoskeletal system.
A child can find C-shaped scoliosis, which has one arch, or an S-shape with two bows. The most complex Z-shaped scoliosis has three arches with axes. The curves may be in the cervical or cervicotorical state. Sometimes it is the site of localization of the breast. There may be a problem in the lower back.
When examined, the orthopedist points to the problem. Precisely determine the degree of scoliosis will enable X-rays. There are several methods that can determine the degree of scoliosis in degrees. More precisely, the Chaklin scale is mostly used.
Sometimes calculations are done by the J method. Kobe. In addition, certain criteria are approved by the Ministry of Health. The indicators differ slightly, which does not greatly affect the opinion of the doctor. There are four stages of scoliosis. At the beginning, it is difficult to suspect the disease, but over time, the signs become visible. To know what changes occur in the body, consider them in turn.
The first degree of scoliosis is almost impossible to notice on your own. The doctor on the exam falls on such phenomena:
- When bent upwards it slightly protrudes the hook or fades the shoulders;
- In the forward position, a different shoulder level is observed;
- There is a slight asymmetry in the waist;
- There is a small drop.
To confirm a curvature of 5-10 degrees, it is necessary to take an X-ray.
The initial stage of deformation is more of a cosmetic defect. One can continue with the usual way of life. There are no symptoms, the health condition is not deteriorating. But, since this pathology tends to develop, it is absolutely impossible to neglect the treatment.
The earlier the problem is identified, the easier it is to stop the progression of the disease. The spine is a complex and unique construction. Inside the vertebrae is the spinal cord. In order for the brain signals to spread perfectly throughout the body, the spine needs to be straight. If there is movement, compression or twisting in any department, there is a failure in the work of various body systems. Even first-degree scoliosis is not as harmless as it seems. If there is a curve, it is impossible to get rid of it, the main thing is to prevent the globalization of the problem.
Stop the development of grade 1 scoliosis can be with the help of therapeutic and preventive physical education.
Classes should be conducted under the supervision of a specialist. If necessary, a massage course is provided. The initial stage of the disease requires systematic observation. Visit a medical facility 3-4 times a year.
The progressive disease becomes noticeable. How to determine that the pathology is still developing? Over time, there are pronounced external signs. The second degree of scoliosis is characterized by:
- The bend is seen both in the bent position and lying down;
- There is asymmetry of the gluteal joints;
- In the vertical position, one blade is higher than the other;
- You can see the obvious imbalance of the shoulder line;
- There is a slope of the costal bones;
- Mice 's backs form a compensatory arch.
X-rays show the curvature of the spine in the anterior plane, whose angle reaches 11-25 degrees.
The man has noticeable discomfort. Occasionally there are such symptoms:
- Back pain in the lumbar region or between the shoulder blades;
- Increased fatigue;
- Frequent headaches;
- Difficulty breathing, as a consequence of chest deformity.
Conservative medicine recommends such methods of treating second-degree scoliosis as wearing corsets, stimulation of electrical muscles, gymnastics, including a complex of breathing exercises, visits to the pool, and massage courses. It is possible to use medication.
If no measure is taken in time, scoliosis develops, the phase of which poses a serious threat to the health of the body as a whole. The pathological condition leads to disorders in the functioning of internal organs.
With the third degree of curvature of the spine, the symptoms become even worse. Pain becomes a constant companion and can increase significantly at times. Physiologically, the following deteriorations occur:
- Distorted pelvis;
- Strongly asymmetrical shoulders;
- Submerged stomach;
- Expressed stoop;
- Shower appearance;
- The curves do not disappear when you change your position.
The picture shows that the vertebrae move to the side with 26-50 degrees.
Treatment is performed on the same principle as a therapeutic course for second-degree scoliosis. In addition to physiotherapy, he recommends medication. Anti-inflammatory drugs, preparations for muscle relaxation, vitamin complexes are recommended.
Fourth-degree pathology threatens critical deterioration in health. Such cases are the result of extreme neglect of the disease. All manifestations of scoliosis are mostly amplified.
A visual definition can be given for the following reasons:
- Large ribs;
- Apparently distorted position;
- Hollow abdomen;
- Significant muscle torsion.
Clinical features of this diagnosis:
- Cardiovascular system failure;
- Decreased lung volume;
- Bladder pressure;
- Increased intestinal bloating;
- Kidney stagnation;
- Spinal cord compression.
The spine extends more than 50 degrees from its axis. In rare cases, the curvature can reach 60 °. Treatment begins with the traditional technique. At 4 degrees of scoliosis of the back, surgical intervention was shown. During the operation, the spine is straightened. To maintain the desired angle, special metal structures are inserted. After that, he is waiting for a long rehabilitation and wearing a corset.
The question is how many degrees of scoliosis exist at all and what should be done to stop the development of the disease, the question arises when the problem already exists. It is much easier to take care of disease prevention than to fight it later.
Here are some tips to help reduce the risk of spinal pathology:
- Pay attention to proper nutrition, take care of a daily balanced diet;
- Give preference to a hard bed;
- Lead an active lifestyle, do not allow prolonged passive activity;
- Pay attention, if you sit properly, try to keep your position while walking.
To date, statistics are far from comforting. More and more children are making such diagnoses as kyphosis, scoliosis, kyphosis. Parental responsibility ensures the health of the younger generation.
Attention must not be reduced to moralizing about even position. Get your child used to the right lifestyle from an early age, so you don’t have to pay for carelessness in the future.